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tearing the rag off the bush again
The Romanian Avant-Garde And Visual Poetry PDF E-mail
new scholarship on Dada and picto-poesy from Andrei Oisteanu


THE TRADITION

1) As a synaesthesic form of art (inter-media-art), the Romanian visual poetry appeared and flourished on the borderline between the fine arts and poetry. It is exactly this positioning „on the borderline” that brings about its „non-defined” statute. Instead of being being claimed by both, the history of art and by the history of literature (a both-and situation), visual poetry is neither acknowledged by the one, nor by the other (a neither-nor situation). There is a parable about two neighbourghs, both of which expecting that the other one should tend the tree growing on the borderline between their two properties, although the roots of the tree suck their sap from either lands and in spite of the fact that both neighbours benefit from its fruits. Obviously, the picto-poetry is not painting, it is neither poetry (as Brauner and Voronca defined picto-poetry in 1924)1, since it is both, i.e. visual art and poetry, inextricably intertwined in view of intensifying „their mutual exaltation capacity” (as André Breton defined the „object-poem” in 1929).

2) As a rule, the exegetes of the visual poetry build their comments starting from the famous uniforming dictum of the Latin poet Horatio: Ut pictura poesis. They forget the phrase – which is more subtle and by five centuries older – used by Simonides of Cheos (6th–5th century B.C.) to define painting as a muta poesis and symetrically, poetry, as a pictura loquens. Two thousand years later, Leonardo da Vinci would resume the topic: La poesia non è una pittura ciecca.

3) The critics of visual poetry have more problems than that. For instance, there is neither a definition, nor a generally accepted denomination.2  This double lack of convention is symptomatic because the modern visual poetry emerged by raising a question mark even on the tabu conventions of traditional language: why should the sign „A” (and not another one) correspond to the sound „A”? Why is it that the word „pipe” (not any other) matches the thing „pipe”? „There is no such thing to be so attached to its name, that there could not be found another one to suit it even better”, was Magritte’s conviction).3 Finally, why should we write/read the letters the one after the other, from left to right, from up to down (and not otherwise)? Above all that, there is an axiom reigning: the poetic message becomes conventional by the use of a conventional language.

4) Did visual poetry of the avant-garde appear ex abrupto et ex nihilo? I am not sure whether we can speak of a tradition in the plain sense of the term, but there is no doubt that we can make references to a series of archaic picto-poetic occurences, of composite works in which the sign and the letter, the drawing and the writing interblend on the surface of the same page in order to enhance the expressive valence of the message. It would suffice to appeal to the old illuminated manuscripts, with ornaments and calligraphy in various inks and letter-types; to the tomb stelae and tomb slates, as well as to the painted crosses (see picto-poems in the „Merry Graveyard” of Săpânţa, North of Romania); to the wall-covers in the peasant kitchens; to the different talismans or amulets and the „curative notes ” (the text of which is written in a spiral, a circle or elipsis, from right to left, crossed or triangularly) etc. „The Magician – as Blaga remarked in 1941 – involuntarily makes use of the poetical means, the poet involuntarily makes use of the magic means”. Taking into account that the majority of the poets of the Romanian avant-garde are of Jewish origin, we cannot outrule the possibility that some of them might have been influenced by the visual forms of the ancient Jewish manuscripts and traditonal wedding contracts (ketubot).

5) In his treaty on Grammar, printed in 1840, in the chapter On poetry, the minister (for Internal Affairs) Iordache Golescu includes a paragraph regarding the figurative aspect of certain poems. „The Greeks – writes the Romanian boyar – used to imagine verses in the shape of wings, of the Pan flute, of an ax, and other, of which we have added hereto an example as well.” Golescu illustrates this poetical-graphic manner (technopaignia), common with the ancient Greeks (Theocrit, Simnius of Rhodos, Dosiades, Besantinos), by virtue of nine visual poems made up by himself4. Plain redundancy: the form repeats graphically the contents already integrated into the text.

6) In 1920, Tristan Tzara published a Manifesto on the weak love and on the bitter love, which contains the famous recipe How to Make a Dadaist Poem by using scissors and a bag out of which one draws at random the words cut from a newspaper. Similarly to a block of stone which incorporates the perfect statue to be found by the sculpturer, in the newspaper there is the perfect poem and the poet – helped by hazard – has but to find it . „Here you are an infinitely original writer with a charming sensitivity, although not understood by common people” concludes Tzara.5 The idea proved to be so outstanding and the visual impact of such a poem so powerful, that André Breton himself – not quoting Tzara – adopted the formula later on, in 1924, in his First Manifesto of Surrealism.6 Talking about the possible tradition from which the Romanian avant-garde has drawn on, it must be said that this „dadaist” technique avant la lettre was invented by a Romanian writer almost a century before. The playwright Matei Millo has staged in Iaşi, in 1835 (and published in 1850), the play A Romantic Poet (Un poet romantic). While satirizing the poets, who write poems „lacking any meaning”, the author provides the young romantic poet with the following „method for making verses”: „For verses I have a method to write hundreds of them even while sleeping, / I take a hat, shove some letters in, about a handful ... and more, / Shake it well ... and on the table, fresh and warm, quickly I cast them.”7 The question is, whether Tristan Tzara did or not know this literary text from 1835. We will never know it, I presume.

7) Edited by the end of the 19th century (manuscript no. 3216 in the Library of Romanian Academy), the Golden Book by the simbolist poet Alexandru Macedonski was published in 1902. This volume comprises the first chapter (out of the twelve planned) from his „great epic” Thalassa. The text was accompanied by the following comment: „In the imagination of the author, each-one of the chapters of his epic must suggest the sensation of a colour through the images used and each-one of the chapters will be printed on a paper in the corresponding colour. Besides, Alexandru Macedonski breaking with tradition of the past does not address only the two senses of the readers: that of the SEEING and that of HEARING. He does want that the one of SCENTING, that of TASTING and of FEELING get in line with the first ones.” At a later date (probably in 1906, when the book appeared in Paris, under the title Calvaire de feu), the poet transcribed the text in French, using inks of different colours (red, green, blue, black, silver). The protagonist of the epic having the „abnormalised senses” by the God Eros (as the author puts it), the appeal to such a visual technique is neither gratuituous nor a prove of „mystification” (as G. Călinescu thought).8
At the beginning of the 20th century, Macedonski achieved some visual poems, lost nowadays. Besides the chromatic language (a paper rich in nacred shades of blue-greenish waters” and coloured inks), the poet also appeals to other visual elements: the unusual page set up of the poem, the use of various typefonts, a different direction for each verse-line (slanting, vertical, wavy, etc.). In 1910, V.G. Paleologlu saw the visual poems written down, and tried to reconstruct them in 1944. Macedonski’s poems, as Paleologu remarks, „were presented in a style and with a technique of presentation unique at that time in the literary graphics.”9

THE INNOVATION

8) In 1914, the poet Ion Vinea published in Facla magazine, a theoretical article: „A new school: The Simultaneism”. Starting with the innovation of the cubists, adopted by the futurists (the representation of the movement in a simultaneous, not in a succession), Vinea stops at Henri Barzun’s book, Voix, Rythmes et Chants Simultanés (Simultaneous Voices, Rhythms and Chants), which makes an attempt to apply the „simultaneous conception” on poetry. Thus, „to the successive we oppose the simultaneous, to monody we oppose polyrhythm, to the linear verse we oppose the visual form”. „Even if the new technique is not yet perfect – writes Vinea –, it is opening  new and unsuspected horizons for the literary research. We welcome the new group for its enthusiasm and talent shown in starting the battle and wish it success in its attempt.” In the end of his article, Vinea wonders whether the „simultaneous poems” will remain „mental” or whether they will be „presented” and, possibly, „read like a musical score”.10

9) The answer to Vinea’s question came exactly two years later from his very friend, Tristan Tzara, who was familiar with Vinea’s text. On the 31st of March 1916, at the Cabaret Voltaire, Tzara stages (together with Marcel Iancu and Richard Huelsenbeck ) his first „simultaneous poem”: L’amiral cherche une maison à louer. This first stage presentation of a „simultaneous poem”11, proves to be what we nowadays call a „performance-poem”. The poem was published in the unique issue of the Cabaret Voltaire’s publication (Zürich, 15th of May, 1916), in an original visual form, that of a pseudo-musical score. Tzara thought it was appropriate to provide some „instructions for the use” of the simultaneous poem, adding a Note for the bourgeois to it. After a short survey of the history of the visual poem and the „principles of simultaneity” applied in visual arts, in poetry and in the theatre, Tzara exposes his own principles, which confer the simultaneous poetry „a new vigour.”12
In the period between 1916-1923, Tristan Tzara made often use of various visual effects, regardless of the „visualised” text: Caligramme, 191613, La fièvre puerpérale – simultaneous poem for four voices, 1916; Froide lumière – simultaneous poem for seven voices, 191714; Astronomie – ornithomorphic calligram, about 1917-192215; Boxe I – visual poem, 191916; Bilan – visual poem, 191917; Proclamation sans prétention – visual manifesto, 191918;  Une nuit d’échecs gras – visual poem-poster, 192019; DADA soulèved TOUT – visual manifesto, 192120; the theatre play Le coeur à gas – includes visual poems – was published by Tzara in Der Sturm (Berlin no.3, 1922; first representation on stage: Paris, 1921).

10) In 1922-1923, the author of the „simultaneous poems” (Tristan Tzara) and the author of the „simultaneous garments” (Sonia Delaunay) imagined together a series of garment-poems. Tzara deliberately composed a cycle of poems to be printed on garments designed by Sonia Delaunay21. „Si la peinture est entrée dans la vie (if painting has entered every day life) – said Sonia Delaunay –, c’est que les femmes la portaient sur elles” (it is because the women wore it on themselves). Her statement can be paraphrased: „Si la picto-poésie est entrée dans la vie, c’est que les femmes la portaient sur elles” (If picto-poetry entered every day life, it is because the women wore it on themselves). The idea to create an „ambulant picto-poetry” certainly is an uncommon one, but not novel: in the 15th century, the poet Charles d’Orléans had his garments embroidered with of his own poems on them.

11) In 1924, the capital of visual poetry moved to Bucharest.22 At the beginning of that year, Ion Vinea was writing his widely acknowleged manifesto: „Down with Art as it has prostituted itself! Poetry is nothing but the press to wring the tear gland of the girls of any age. Painting is nature’s diaper, spread out in the drawing-rooms of brothels. We aks for the miracle of the new word, full of significance, the rigurous and swift visual expression of the Morse telegraph.”23 A few motnths after this outcry in revolt, the poet Ilarie Voronca and the painter Victor Brauner considering „unworthy of appreciation the contribution the modern research brought to literature and visual arts”, - attempt to make a synthesis between the poetry and painting of the avant-garde by suggesting a new term: PICTOPOETRY. The promoters of the new concept are the members of the 75HP group, which defined themselves as „l’unique group de l’avantgarde de Roumanie” (the only group of the Romanian avant-garde), and which published the homonym publication in 1924. In the pages of the review some of the visual peoms are reproduced (signed Ilarie Voronca and Mihail Cosma = Claude Sernet), the threefold definition of the pictopoetry and a few pictopoems, signed Ilarie Voronca and Victor Brauner, which were not entitled but marked with an inventory number (No. 384, No. 5721), in order to avoid any trap of any literary suggestion whatsoever.
The programmatic texts, also printed in a picto-poetic manner, were an attempt to provide details on this subject-matter: „Of course, the INVENTION, the INVENTION, the INVENTION. The world has to be reinvented. Again and again in an original way. This is the reason why Mr Victor Brauner’s and Mr Ilarie Voronca’s invention, the PICTOPOETRY emergies as the answer to an immediate necessity. Pictopoetry is the synthesis of the new art, and it could stand alone as a justification for the 75HP group” (Alex. Cernat = Ilarie Voronca), or yet another text, which as it seems belongs to Ştefan Roll: “LA PICTOPÉSIE est le dernier-cri de l’heure actuelle. La pictopoésie revivifie tous les courents révélateurs d’art nouveau, LA PICTOPOÉSIE réalise enfin la vraie synthèse des futurismes, dadaismes, constructivismes. Les attitudes les plus éloignées se retrouvent universellement fécondées dans le mouvement pictopoétique, mots et couleurs reçoivent une nouvelle sonorité, la sensation ne se perd plus mais au contraire. PICTOPOÉSIE TRIOMPHE SUR TOUT, ENREGISTRE TOUT, RÉALISE L’IMPOSSIBLE” (The PICTOPOETRY is the state-of-the-art of the present poetry. The pictopoetry revives all the revealing trends of art nouveau. The PICTOPOETRY, finally realises a true synthesis of futurisms, dadaisms, constructivisms. The most remote attitudes find themselves universally fertilized within the pictopoetic movement, words and colours acquire a new sonority, the sensation does not wane, on the contrary. PICTOPOETRY TRIUMPHS OVER EVERYTHING, RECORDS EVERYTHING, ACHIEVES THE IMPOSSIBLE.).   From the long series of events, „inventions”, books, exhibitions, advertised in the review as to take place soon, some refer to pictopoetry: „On the 24th of October [1924], at the Maison d’Art, there will be the opening of Victor Brauner’s painting exhibition: expressionsm, cubism, constructivism, pictopoetry”, “Dans l’editure 75 HP paraitront prochainement: TX843 – un volume, 150 pages, avec pictopoésies et bois par V. Brauner & Il.  Voronca”,  “Le gropue  75 HP organisera au cours du mois décembre [1924]: un grand laboratoire pictopoétique avec salle de lecture: on pourra lire avec accompagnements de cablocardostepp sur les murs des pictopoésies polynationales” etc. (The Publishing House 75HP will soon publish  TX843 – one volume, 150 pages, with pictopoetry and wood engravings by V. Brauner & Il. Voronca” „the group 75HP will organise during December [1924]: a big pictopoetical workshop with a room for reading: it will be possible to read on the walls, accompanied by the cablocardostepps, polynational pictopoems” etc.)24

12) In the same period of time, there were also other magazines which often published various forms of visual poetry. For instance, in Punct. A Magazine for Constructivist Art, published some of the visual poems signed by Scarlat Callimachi (no.3/1924) or Felix Aderca, (9/1925), A Formal Alphabet by Marcel Iancu (11/1925) as well as programmatic texts, mainly signed by Ilarie Voronca: „The word in literature, similarly to the colour or the line drawn in painting, fulfill an abstract role, superior to its meaning from the grammar and logical point of view. The verb, when used purely, comparaby to the materials in the visual constructions acquire a signification which is not to be found in the dictionary. The word dancer, unchained was to leap from the lines, to break the phrase like a coconut.” (no. 6-7, 1925).

13) On the first page of the Urmuz magazine (no.4/1928) an anthropomorphic poem has been printed (Icon Madrigal), and three more visual poems on the third page (Spiders), all composed by the poet Al. Tudor-Miu (1901-1961) from Câmpina, and they were dedicated to the singer Josephine Baker. „I believe these were the most interesting things to appear in the Urmuz magazine, being also the most original ideas of Tudor Miu”, as would Geo Bogza write in 1973, stating his conviction that these visual poems by Tudor Miu were the result of a personal „invention”, as at that time the author was not yet aware of Appolinaire’s Caligrammes25. Although, Geo Bogza himself had published in the same period poems containing visual elements26, and in spite of considering Voronca’s and Brauner’s pictopoetry as „a gesture meant to render the bourgeois mind indignant, lighting, at the same time, a bulb in the universe!”27 – almost half a century later, his attitude towards the calligrams, for example, will become a mere tolerant one: „I do not think that the verses aligned in such a manner represent a great asset for poetry, however, they are a game the fantasy of a poet can indulge in, with results both surprising and delicate.”28

14) Another anthropomorphic poem was published during the same span of time by the writer Romulus Dianu: Self-Portrait (in Contimporanul, no. 6, 1926). And finally, the painter Arnold Daghani (born in Suceava, 1909) writes a touching anthropomorphic poem, somtime between 1942-1943, on behalf of the Jews who were the victims of the camp Mihailovka in Transnistria, where he had been deported as well.

15) After settling down in Paris (1933), Victor Brauner will not renounce the expression technique of the pictopoetry he had practiced in Romania in the 1920s. As an example, in 1948 he writes his well-known „PICTOPOÈME. The portrait of the portraits of André Breton.”29

16) At the beginning of the 1940s, the Romanian poet Gellu Naum practiced two different tecniques of visual poetry: the self-poem and the collage-poem. The first one (achieved in 1940 and reproduced in the Literary Almanach, 1970, p. 74) is something that today could be called body-art-poem; inscribing the text on the own face has generated an strange and expressive self-(portrait)-poem. The cycle of collage poems, entitled The Advantage of the Vertebras was realise, in 1942, replacing the arid-explanatory text of an obsolete illustrated catalogue of clothes and accessories, by poetical texts. From this cycle, 13 collage-poems (a few others are in the collection of the Serbian poet Vasko Popa) have appeared in the volume Descrierea turnului (The Description of the Tower, Albatros Publishing House, 1975), but in a limited edition: „150 copies, not for sale”. The editor has arbitrarily removed from an important part of the edition images which, obviously, were organically incorporated in the poetical approach.30

17) As a rule, the date of birth of Lettrism is considered by the literary critics, to be 1947, when a manifesto-book signed by Isidore Isou appears in Paris under the title Introduction à une nouvelle poésie. Isou takes up again and pushes to the limits the work of deconstruction of the poetical language. He not only proposes „the freedom of the stanza within the poem” (as Verlaine and Rimbaud), or the freedom of the verse within the stanza (as Gustav Kahn), and not even just „the freedom of each word within the line” (as Appolinaire), but the liberation of the letter from under the tyranny of the word. In other words, he proposes the fission of molecule-word in its undivisable parts, the atom-letters, in order to restore their intrinsic poetic value, in itself, and in order to let free in this way a presumptive huge „atomic” energy. At the time of the elaboration of the „manifesto of the lettrist poetry” (1942), Isidore Isou declared that „Lettrism is not a poetry school, but a solitary attitude. At this very moment: Lettrism = ISIDORE ISOU. Isou awaits his continuators in poetry”31. And they did not cease to arrive, creating a powerful trend influencing the subsequent evolution of the various forms of concrete, experimantal and visual poetry. Although the Introduction à une nouvelle poésie appeared in 1947, according to a note of the author contained in a „Warning” Isou wrote the book in the period of 1942-1944 and „Le manifeste de la poésie lettriste” which opens the volume is dated 1942. Isidore Isou (by his real name Isidor Goldstein), who defined himself as „un balkanique qui rêve du succès de Tristan Tzara” (a man from the Balkans who dreams of Tristan Tzara’s success), was born in Botoşani, in 1925 (he died recently, in France, in 28th of July 2007). The literary historian Pietro Ferrua pointed out that, at the time when the book and the manifesto were elaborated, their „writer was living in his native Romania” thus concluding that „lettrism is a movement of Romanian extraction”32.

NOTES

1) Magazine 75 HP, Bucuresti, 1924.
2) There are other terms whcih are circulated in parallel: calligrammes (Appolinaire), simultaneous poem (Tristan Tzara), parole in libertá (Marinetti), optophonetic poem (R. Hausmann), Ursonate (K. Schwitters), unravelled words (Hans Arp), optic poem (Man Ray), pictopoetry (Brauner & Voronca), object-poem (Breton), concrete poem (E. Gommringer), etc.
3) René Magritte, „Les Mots et les images”, in „La révolution surréaliste”, Paris, no. 12, 1929.
4) Minister Iordache Golescu, Băgări de seamă asupra canoanelor grămăticeşti [Observations on the  grammar canons],  Eliad Printing Shop, Bucharest, 1840. The book was elaborated long before, since Ion Heliade-Rădulescu refers to it already in 1828, in the preface of his Grammar book. See Iordache Golescu, Scrieri alese (Selected Writings), Edited by Mihai Moraru, Cartea Românească, 1990, pp. 154-160 and Mihai Moraru, „The Calligrammes of Iordache Golescu”, ibidem, pp. 383-388.
5) Tristan Tzara, Oevres complètes, Tome I (1912-1924), Texte établi, présenté et annoté par  Henri Béhar, Flammarion, Paris, 1975, p. 382; Tristan Tzara, Şapte manifeste DADA, with several drawings by Francis Picabia, Translated by Ion Pop, Univers Publishing House, Bucharest, 1996, p. 42.
6) Mario de Micheli, Avangarda artistică a secolului XX, Romanian translation by Ilie Constantin, Meridiane Publishing House, Bucharest, 1968, p. 310.
7) Primii noştri dramaturgi (Our First Dramatists), Edited by Al. Niculescu, An Anthology by  Florin Tornea, ESPLA Publishing House, Bucharest, 1960, p. 361.
8) G. Călinescu, The History of the Romanian Literature, 2nd Edition, Minerva Publishing  House, Bucharest,1986, p.225.
9) V.G. Paleolog, Visiunea şi audiţia colorată sinestetică la Al. Macedonski. Studiu de  literatură comparată după pagini  manuscrise colorate şi inedite din „Calvaire du feu” cu reproduceri în culori a celei a 33-a din manuscris precum şi reconstituirea aşezărei grafice a unistrofei „Pe balta clară” (The Coloured, Synaesthesic Vision and Audition at Al. Macedonski. A Compared Literature Study after the Coloured and Novel Manuscripts in the „Calvaire du feu” with coloured reproductions of the 33rd one in the Manuscript, as well as the Restoration of the Graphic Layout of the Unistanza „On the Clear Pond), Bucharest, 1944.
10) Ion Vinea, „O şcoală nouă: Simultaneismul” (A New School: The Simultaneism), in Facla, nr.  142, March 1914.
11) Subsequently there was a dispute over the prioriy regarding „the first stage performance of a simultaneous poem”, between Tristan Tzara and Sébastian Voirol. S. Voirol had initiated a similar event, in March 1917 (see Tristan Tzara, Oevres complètes, Tome I, p. 718).
12) Tristan Tzara,  Oevres complètes, Tome I,  p. 492.
13) Hans Richter, Dada 1916-1966. Documents of the International Dada Movement, Köln, 1978, p. 90.
14) Tristan Tzara, A propos de la poésie simultanée, in Dada, Zürich, 1917.
15) Tristan Tzara, Oeuvres complètes, ed. cit., p. 522.
16) The poem appearred in the magazine Sic, Paris, nr. 42-43, March 1919, and in the volume Tristan Tzara, De nos Oiseaux, Paris, 1922, volume in which there are several poems having visual valences.
17) Appeared in Dada, Zürich, nr. 4-5/15th May 1919.
18) Read in Zürich, in 1919 and published in Die Schamade, Cologne, 1920 and in the volume Tristan Tzara, Sept manifestes Dada (Seven Dada Manifestos), Paris 1921.
19) This „tipographic poem” was the object of a study: „It seems that Dada – notes the author – wanted to shock, by exhausting to the limit all the traditional procedures of printing” (Fr. Caradec, Dada sans/avec parangon, in Cahiers Dada Surréalisme, nr. 3, 1969). The poster had been manufactured in view of the selling of the avant-garde publications in Francis Picabia’s exhibition (Paris, 1920). The latter was to a certain extent influeanced by the visual poems signed by Tzara. The painter dedicates one of the visual poems, Portrait de Tristan Tzara (1919), and his picto-poem L’oeil cacodylate (1921) ends with the paraphrased line „Je me trouve très Tristan Tzara”.
20) Hans Richter, op. cit., p. 48.
21) See 9 sketches of poem-dresses, in the catalogue of the exhisbition La rencontre Sonia Delaunay – Tristan Tzara, Ed. Musée d’Art Moderne, Paris, 1977.
22) In 1924, in Bucharest took place the international exhibition Contimporanul. The exhibition enjoyed a prestigious european participation: Hans Arp, Paul Klee, K. Schwitters, Hans Richter, Viktor Eggeling, Lajos Kasssak, Constantin Brâncuşi, Marcel Iancu, H.M. Maxy, Victor Brauner a.o.
23) Ion Vinea, „The Activist Manifesto to the Youth”, in Contimporanul, nr. 4, May 1924.  
24) The magazine 75HP, Bucharest, October 1924.
25) Geo Bogza, Preface to Al. Tudor-Miu’s volume Întâlnire cu pasărea Phoenix, Minerva, Bucharest, 1973, pp. 13-18.
26) See Urmuz, nr. 5/1928, unu nr. 10/1929 a.o. Geo Bogza would „visualise” his Poem Invective (unu Publishing House 1933) with his own fingerprints, taken in 1931 on the occasion of the trial opened against the collaborators of the magazine unu.
27) Goe Bogza, Ilarie Voronca, in magazine Urmuz nr. 3/1928.
28) Geo Bogza, Mărturie despre Tudor-Miu, ed. cit., p.15.
29) José Pierre, Surrealism, Baron’s, New York, 1979, p.17.
30) Gellu Naum, Partea cealaltă, Cartea Românescă, Bucharest, 1980.
31) Isidore Isou, Introduction à une nouvelle poésie et à une nouvelle musique, Gallimard, Paris, 1947, p. 17.
32) Pietro Ferrua, Le cas de Isou et du Lettrism, in Revista de Istorie şi Teorie Literară, Bucharest, nr. 4, 1985, pp. 71-74.


The original study was published in the volume DADAEAST? The Romanians of Cabaret Voltaire, Edited by Adrian Notz & E-cart.ro, cu prilejul expoziţiei de avantgardă românească de la Färgfabriken, Stockholm, octombrie 2007, Cabaret Voltaire, Zurich & E-cart.ro, Bucharest, 2007.
 
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