are up, compliments are down! I walk into a bar, eggs fly through the
air. People are like "Are you the guy who writes that? I hate that
guy!" Hatemail fills our post office box, jams our emails. Not like
back when everybody rushed to the newsstand to see their name in print.
Compared to Laura Rosenthal, I think I've shown some restraint. Jeeez,
give a guy a break.
No! Don't give a guy a break. Take him to "Moral Court" instead. Yeah,
that's where the real justice takes place. You could be on TV, maybe even
win some money. Plus, the judge is one hell of a guy. Once I saw him make
a lady boxer lay down her gloves and pay attention to her kids. Another
time, he berated some guy for spawning eleven illegitimate children, then
awarded his sister $2000 for taking him to court TV. And then, of course,
you get to hang out with Judge Judy and Ed Koch and all those other judges
that saturate the afternoons. Take part in Americana! You're the boss,
In fact, here's a direct link to their website: www.moralcourttv.com.
And here's their phone number: 1-800-MOR-ALTY. But here's the rub: I could
use the publicity too. Who couldn't?
Okay, here we go.
Lytton Bell, self-professed alcoholic-poet-slut:
Another Day at the Dildo Factory
Twenty immigrants in
are painting veins on
twenty prosthetic penises
The penises, molded in a malleable rubber
sway a little
when you touch them
as if to ask:
What are you doing to me?
Where are you sending me?
What will I be doing one week from today?
My hands are subtle monsters
the trees are peopled with birds
nothing has ever changed
leopard in my lungs
exhales the lonely heat
of all your afternoons.
I'm sitting on the couch with Philip... He says, "Girls have two butts."
I say no. Girls have a butt and a vagina, while boys have a penis and
a butt. "Our whole body is a butt," Philip screams, while Bumbles bounce
on the big screen.
Kurt (Laugh At Me)'s New Orleans Spleen:
i had the rite of spring in my pocket after the long ohio winter.
spring arrived, and often restless, preoccupied, lusty, i would
spend the days wandering around. i wore the same clothes everyday.
i had let my hair grow and it looked like straw. my eyes were oily
and greasy. i was very thirsty. i drank beer and robitussin. when
i wasnt working i was baked by wanderlust.
i spent the nights smoking weed, wandering around, dumping gasoline
on roadside shit and setting it afire. listening to symphony music.
writing ominous secretive garbage and reading proust and van gogh.
one day in the late morning i walked across the fields, paths, and railways
looking down, or to the side, listening to the radio, the inoffensive
morning sun that spread gentle heat like a lover's hand through the still
cold morning air onto your meat as you lumbered, ambled or stumbled by.
i was chainsmoking, and smoking weed, and i was high sitting under a bridge
trying to ignore the graffiti and tossing garbage around, breaking bottles,
piss painting in the dust, and sitting on piles of wood or on the rail
itself, puffing away.
in the early spring, when the dirt thaws, the sewage plant does also,
and the smell is deep down makes your skin itch and your stomach convulse,
your nose prick and your face resents anyone around you unaffected by
Rev. Jakob Rakovan pawned his soul for a place in the bag:
I am filled with such venom as the young are filled
on this antiseptically suburban morning,
wherein I must revive a vehicular Lazarus yet again,
and seek my stolen property in pawn shops
in this small town, which is rapidly filling with
pawn shops to receive stolen property
and bail bonds to spring those apprehended
receiving stolen property
and more and more empty houses
and less and less property.
If your Uncle Jack was
Stuck on the roof
Would you help your
Uncle Jack off?
The instant I set foot in Mexico they drew a razor line down my front
and opened me up like a piece of luggage. I staggered down the streets
trying to hold in my insides, trying... to keep the two flapping skin
sheets from being blown wide open by the wind. I am quite sure that all
the buzzing insects below me on the pavement enjoyed the crimson bath
that collected and pooled as I moved toward the Cantina.
Between graphic vodka-shits, Steven Hoadley embraces a love for women
that even I find esophogi-curdling:
Her tits looked more like teats. Long, like the offshoots from a cow's
udder. Big bumpy brown nipples engulfed the end of them. I was sure I'd
sucked them, I always did. Her bush stared at me. Ungroomed and unappealing.
It reminded me of a sea urchin. Big black tentacle-like hairs shot in
every direction, ready to snatch. Underneath, or below, were the lips.
The stinging, snapping-at-all-things-living, swollen, been-fucked-by-a-million-Sam-Mackies,
The Hall of Rhymes
I love my little fish
it swims so close to me
just the glass between us
he wishes I was free.
John Wingspread Howell:
I sent you submissions with oh so much hope,
now I see you have made me a dope,
your mag is itself a corpse now it seems
so much for my twisted literary dreams,
Did anyone read them, did anyone care?
Not even a body bag reference to spare?
And lastly and leastly, Christopher Mulrooney:
all form flown;
wild geese give
Das Final Coupé (Send Us Something Else svp)
Sydney Harth, Ann Ice, Briggs Seekins (if only you submitted that one
for our Cyb Fi issue), Jann Burner (re: Colors, intriguing -- but we could've
used a different ending), Al Tobin, A. D. Fallon, Glenn A. Osborn (send
us something wiggier), Kate Carr, Gregor Everitt, Sarah White, Iris Gribble-Neal,
Thomas Gribble, Sam E. Hime, Shane Mitchell Thompson, Graham Catt (with
more gritty details and less generic names and verbs), Evan Hundhausen,
Mark Weinstein, Stephen F. Anderson, Michelle Richmond, Nan Leslie (&
please send as an attachment next time if you can, text was all ####>>@@@screwy),
Sanford Tweetie, Peter Magliocco, William Alex Kivette, Walter Reeves,
Karen E. Lillis, Prem Krishna Gongaju, E.E. Bosse, Andrew T. McCarter,
Morgan Showalter, Gary Sloan, Tom Sheehan, Ryan Scamehorn, Jo n eace krause,
Leonore Wilson, Patrick McVay, Michael Ives, Carmen Lupton (a lot of striking
lines!), Darby McDevitt, Sam Tsitrin, Michael Ouros, Jesse Chatham, Frank
Matagrano, Mark Binder, Marco Standid, Amber Sharick (keep on trucking),
Matthew W. Schmeer (and next time please paste yr text directly into email,
ASCII aint for us), John Simonds, Nathan Versaw, Serpil Oppermann, Christine
L. Reed, Curt Nelson, Raul Speilman, Mike Fulton, Leonore Wilson,
Jerome Edwards (I ain't never seen "ass" used as a verb before, not even
with a toothbrush. Send more), Travis Jon Mader, Nicholas Cannariato,
J. Heath Atchley, Monica Amato, Joshua Harteis, Matthew T. Felling (send
us another one but have more fun with it), Stephany Aulenback (Cindy Jackson
turned herself into a stuck-up pop-culture vision of nothing which some
might be quick to say is the image of a self-obsessed "ball-biting bitch"),
Nathan Stange, Frederick Zackel, Christina Wos' Donnelly, Jonathan Thirkield,
Eddie Woods, William Campana (send us some whacky ones sans the
pop refs), Victoria Marinelli (see if you can take it a notch past "you
ain't been around"), Gary Schmitz, Ron Morelli, Gary Sloan, roberto valenza,
Mike Mellish, Conrad J. Stenftenagel, Dylan Willoughby, Alec S. Scott,
Jordan Vezina, Sara Marie Jones (powerful stuff), Edward Johnson Maxwell
(you pig!), Sam Tsitrin, Ilya á Mandelshtam and Akhmatova (havez-vous
any less sentimental & more obscure poets to traduce?), Rob Todd,
Nopasaurus Rex but Maybe Next Tuesday
Gervais Dremiere, Lori Smaltz, Flora Gael, Jeff Foster, Mike Romeling,
Ward Kelley, D.R. Lawrence (loved your essay on the porcupine), Kenneth
Detro, Jesse Walker, Pelle Cass, Gadi Dechter, Charles Miller, Patti See,
Sean Tribe, Malibu Leith, David Blend, Michael Catherwood, Derek Kittle,
Peter Reynolds, Paul Hardacre, Garrett Gambino, Toby Leah Bochan, Melanie
Conroy-Goldman, Charles Blackstone, Sherry Jones, Angela Weiler, Kevin
No Last Name (Safety Net), Nicholas Allen Harp, Dennis Kim-Prieto, Jason
Watters, Manuel Chavira Jr, Christopher DeWeese, Bernd Sauermann, Kristen
Havens, Karl Elder, William Borden, Sophia Tekmitchov, Richard Kostelanetz,
Lee Kitchen, Anna Sidak, James Robinson, Eric Purchase, Marilyn Kirsch,
Jerry Kelly, Kathryn Kulpa, Tracy Scarpino (an innocent story about some
not so innocent things -- I liked it but we need more bullshit from boyfriend
and scratches from Scratches), Christopher D. Guerin, J.N. Foster, Eddie
Watkins, Elizabeth Harper, J. Peter Nelson, Matthew J. Sullivan, Shin
Yu Pai, Robert Moore, Jeffrey Little (that "little creep in the hair suit"
was Chaka from Pacooniville), Tom James, Eric Johnson, Christa Henze,
Rachel Lane, Neil Grimmett, Alistair McHarg (Alistair McHarg is also a
good name for a hot-air balloonist), Alfred J. Buono, Charles Allen Wyman,
Kara Schwartz, D. Race, Scott Withiam, Gabriel Orgrease, Tim Martin, L.
Rafferty, Marc Goldin, Mark Lovas, Scott Thill, Brent Askari, Mark O'Neil,
Kathryn Rantala, Lynn Bishop, Roy Allahades, Nathan Pritts, Barbara Flaska,
Rusty Barnes, James McConnon, Bill Berry, Lyle Reman, Mark Farnsworth,
Maralyn Lois Polak, Frederick Zackel, Ed Meek, Tom Blessing, Vishal Khanna,
Daniel Boehl, Dee Rimbaud, Mark Herz, Jude Roy, Dale Shank, P.A. Latham,
Angus Somerville, Tiff Holland, Warren Decker, Abigail Wender, A. Ray
Norsworthy, Michelle Dazio, Sean Patrick Murphy, Marshall Moore, Geoff
Balme, Jason DeBoer (since it was already published on-line, we can't
use it--but send more stuff), John Miller (a few years back, in Denver
I think, some guy took a gun to one of those pizza joints; the homicides
that took place were later referred to as the "Chucky Cheese murders"
by the local media), Jessica Smith, J. C. Frampton, K.R. Parkley, Bill
who sends us CBGB & NY poetry announcements, Lia Gladstone, Debra
Di Blasi, Gwynne Garfinkle, Teri Browning, Smith Joseph (hey, didn't you
invent the Mormons?), Katie Kidder, Pj Shippy, By T.L. Henry, Cosmin Nicolae,
Jeff Diteman, John Brennen, John Freeman, Nathan Leslie, Rebecca Hazelton
Pennell, Sara Gran, Elizabeth Kadetsky, Kimberly Townsend Palmer (P.U.,
something smells like Stein in here, I better open a window), Chris Simon,
Victor Gischler, Randall K. Rogers, Scott Thompson, Andrew Gallix, Sacha
Calagopi, Arettie Ford, Matt Mason, Heather O'Neil (ugh), Carol Borzyskowski
(too many MFA workshop poems inundating us with subjects such as Sylvia
Plath), Jon Clark, Nevid Hartenstein, Donovan Miyasaki, Eames Clayton
Echeverria, David Ho, Valery Oisteanu, donna kuhn, Amy Trussell &
Patrick di Michele, Kelley Jean White MD, Moly Snyder Edler, Brian Lane,
Elizabeth Moray, Joan Harvey, Hugh Carter Donahue, Lee Rossi, John Erhardt,
Martin Brick (what a pukey story), Steve Frederick, Catherine Daly, Ashton
Royce, Anthony Dowler, Dawn M. Comer, Betty Schambacher, Adam Perry, Krista
Ford, Michael Hansen, A-S. Kartsonis, Corey Mesler (O that satiric 19th-century
voice/been done before/especially in 19th century), Jurgen Fauth, Lisa
Beatman, Andy Miller, Valerie Heinold MacEwan, John Cotter, Leo Sylvester,
Jeff Rigsby, Margaret O'neal, Geoffrey Fox, Leonard O. Newmark, Roger
Morris, Cathy Paul, J.V. Foerster, Jeffery Beam, Tina Broderick (Belchertown
-- that's disgusting), Tom Gibbons, Shane Allison (was that a submission
or a love poem for Andrei?), Glenn Ingersoll, Laura Micciche (it's a pleasure
to see the shoe-word "thongs" used, now that the singular meaning of the
word has taken over the universe just because it goes up someone's ass
crack), Jennifer Gillespie, Ben Szmanda (szorry), Mr. Leland Mellott,
Josh Evans, Suzanne Thomson, Michael Hauser, Wenonah Lyon, Justin Asher
Siegel, David Lawrence, Steve Pisani, Marcy Jarvis, Larry Walker, Simon
Fanning, Matthew Glass, Terence S. Hawkins, Jon Lee, Dave Ruslander, Alan
Davis, Maryanne Stahl, Jerry R. Williams, Linda Healey, David Chorlton,
Joseph Kaye, Jill Wright, Daniel A. Olivas, Sheila Velazquez, Garrett
Cook (pretty damn smart stuff for 18), Dr. David James (Hey, Dean James,
you should give Garrett Cook a scholarship), Jacob Hammerslag (what a
name), Steven Ingram, Sono, Kathryn Magendie, Daniel
W. Rasmus, David Willems, Leonard Kress, Carolyn McPherson, Amy Halloran,
Andrew Noth, Jeremy Huff, Jon Erickson, Ryan Smart, Eric Purchase (yep,
dead on arrival), RD Larson, Rick Rucker (our kind of story, but not our
kind of language), Jeff Morgan, Rabbit Szody (that's a good Christian
name), Ramon V. Tinio, Moji Agha, Adrian Gargett, Wayne Wolfson, James
William Penson, Sam See, seth mirza, Gail Ford, Evan Willner, Jean Paul
Couturier, M.L. Liebler (Hey everybody, this guy thought the Body Bag
was retired!), Asher Radunsky, Sharon Alsop, E.E. Mos, Elise Davis, Scott
Carter, Adam Pettet, Bruce Pratt, Greg Farnum, Alex Lindholm, Rachel Savage,
Doren Robbins, Hansen, Kevin McCaffrey, Alex Mendra, Sam Silva, James
David Tegeder, Jeffery Bahr, Ann Dulaney, Stephan Moser, Tim Brown, David
Schoffman, John Quinn (I don't think Dubya reads Shelley), Jamie Wasserman
(good title), Alex Balasescu, John Morkel, Ted Jackson, J. Loid Miller,
b ne, Deborah Bacharach, Darby McDevit, Nanette Rayman, Laura Ohata, Marc
Adler, Lee Kitzis, Piers Kenna, Tod Trexler, Laurel Snyder, Mark Jason
Hing, Michael R. Allen, Joke Kaviaar, Kevin James Miller, Len Cruz, Elizabeth
Marino, Alex Mendra, Zane Ivy, Tim Windsor, Tom Timmins, Scott Williams,
James Vincent, Natalia Sliskovic, Ian Singleton, Daniel P. Wils (get a
Not Our Bag (this category generally reserved for those who are not familiar
with the Corpse and assume we publish stuff we don't)
Erik Olsen (writes "Oh logical mind, please give my soul wisdom, oh science
oh reason, please bury my longing." We write: "here's some wisdom for
you, don't quit your dayjob."), Eliot Arnold (gag me with a poem!).
Stuff Received (some of which we will review)
WordWrights! No. 22. Poetry, reviews, ads, fiction, pictures of authors.
Blair Ewing is a biker rocker. Elizabeth Hazen wants to be a junkie. Miles
David Moore yammers in jail.
Confessions of Doyle, III, by John Doyle, Read Books, NY. Catchy language.
Colorado Review, Spring 2001.
Poetry Project Newsletter, April/May 2001 & Summer 2001. I sent
a review of a Bukowski book to the Poetry Project and the editor smarmily
wrote me back, "I'm just not interested enough in Bukowski to publish
this." Well excuuuuuse me!
To Repel Ghosts, by Kevin Young. Zoland Books, Cambridge. An urban
epic in the tradition of Langston Hughes. Skip Fox is reviewing this.
Caught in a Still Place, by Jonathan Lerner. Serpent's Tail, London.
An engrossing story of love and friendship and making do in the face of
the ultimate bleakness we can imagine, according to Marge Piercy.
The Women's Review of Books and The American Book Review, various
issues. I am now putting these publications together in the same pile
and putting the pile in the same place.
They Called Me "King Tiger": My Struggle for the Land and Our Rights,
by Reies Lopez Tijerina, trans. and ed. by Jose Angel Gutierrez. Arte
Publico Press, Houston. We sent a bunch of books by this publisher out
to some reviewers and never heard from them again.
umbra, a lit journal published by the New Orleans Center for Creative
Home Killings: A Romilia Chacon Mystery, by Marcos McPeek Villatoro.
Arte Publico, Houston.
Lucas Guevara, by Alirio Diaz Guerra. Arte Publico, Houston. This
one's in Spanish.
Home to War: A History of the Vietnam Veterans' Movement, by Gerald
Nicosia (the guy who put Joan Kerouac's book in the hands of Creative
Arts, the guy who wrote that killer article about Jan Kerouac in Thus
Spake the Corpse, Vol. 2., and wrote that Keroauc biography ) Crown,
NY. Man, this sucker is a monster! 688 pages.
A History of Free Verse, by Chris Beyers. The University of Arkansas
Meditations, with Distractions: Poems, 1988-98, by James J. McAuley.
U of Ark, Fville.
Drive Through the Blue Cylinders, by Ed Friedman. Hanging Loose Press,
Brooklyn. Poetry book with nuclear reactors and swimming sperm on cover.
Round-Trip to Deadsville: A Year in the Funeral Underground, by Tim
Matson. Chelsea Green Pub. Co., White River Junction, Vermont.
Palabras de Mediodia/Noon Words, poems by Lucha Corpi, trans. Catherine
Rodriguez-Nieto. Arte Publico Press, Houston.
Adrift: The Cuban Raft People, by Alfredo A. Fernandez. Arte Publico,
500,000 Azaleas: The Selected Poems of Efrain Huerta, edited by Jack
Hirschman, trans. Jim Normington, Curbstone Press, Willimantic, CT.
Black Hollyhock, First Light, poems by Judyth Hill, La Alameda Press,
Context, no. 7. This is good shit. Articles by Keith Waldrop, Gerald
Bruns [sic?], Mark Twain, Italo Calvino, book reviews of Queneau, Fuentes,
Denis Johnson, Ed Sanders, all for free.
April, Abril, by Gerardo Beltran, trans. John Burns. Backwoods Broadsides
Chaplet Series, number 54.
Jisei, by Clayton Eshleman, Backwoods Broadsides Chaplet Series, number
liberté: L'expérience mystique, no. 252.
Seasons from the Second Floor, chapbook by Nathan Graziano, Green
Bean Press, New York.
Love-Hate Continuum, chapbook by Mark Terrill, Green Bean. Funny cover,
blurb from Ferlinghetti.
Madwoman in a Hand Mirror, chapbook by Ronnie Burk, Hekate's Gallery,
San Francisco, 2001. Some of that ye olde surrealistic poesy and collage
work o' Burk.
The 2nd Hand, installment no. 5, Spring 2001. Punkass!!
Rattle: Poetry for the 21st Century, no. 15. Tribute to Writers of
the Underground Press theme. Featuring work by Amiri Baraka, Eric Basso,
Gerald Locklin, and Al Masarik who once wrote a great poem about a bum
blacked out on the ground with a chunk of red dogshit next to his head.
Victoria's Secret, Spring 2001. Selected bras & panties 25-50%
off. Clearance bras $9.99. Clearance panties $2.99.
Neither Rhyme nor Reason: A Miscellany, by Herman Berlandt, Cassandra
Publishers, Bolinas. Dot Matrix cover chapbook full of a whole bunch of
orange bookmarks directing us to certain pages. I guess it's a submission.
Love-ins with Nietzsche: A Memoir, chapbook by Wanda Coleman, Wake
Up Heavy Press, Fresno, Ca. She's a fiery writer.
Ur Vox: Journal of the Underlying Voice, vol. 1. Other journals: take
a lesson from this! Underlying voice. Surrealism. Found photos. Write
to PO Box 9249, Denver Co, 80209 and git yrself a copy.
A Study of Time & Distances in North America, chapbook by Reno
Lauro, Buckaroo Press, Austin. Nice paper, oppressed-voice poetry with
Here I Go, chapbook by Dale Smith, Buckaroo Press, Austin.
Skanky Possum 6, Spring 2001. Send $5 + $1.50 shipping and handling
to 2925 Higgins St., Austin, Tx, 78722 for smorgasborgia of Baraka, Tom
Clark, Eshleman, Larry Sawyer, Diane di Prima, Joe Safdie & co.
Tameme: New Writing from North America, vol. 1, issue 2.
Fine Print: Authors in the Park, 2000.
Underwater Elephants, from Naropa. Jack Collom, editor, keeping that
great mimeo/photocopy tradition alive. Thanks Jack.
Two very small books from Ft. Apache Publishing, San Diego, Ca.
House Organ, no. 35, summer 2001. Stuff by Eshleman, Robert Buckeye,
Joe Napora, Skip Fox, Kenneth Warren. Send contribution to 1250 Belle
Ave, Lakewood, Oh 44107 and receive of the organ.
Problem 35 and Fogsoup 56, alias Fellswoop, copywrong
2001. Lots of whacky poetry and images. You go Joel.
The American Poetry Review, July/August 2001.
Scattershot Haze: A Tribute to the Beats, by Ralph Haselmann Jr. who
is, as they say, the hardest working editor in Smallpress Land. This is
Ralphy's second poetry book, even though it's his first. In this Xlibris
find: Toilet Mantras, Rejection Poems, misc. re: Kerouac, Bukowski, conversations
w/ Cobain, and ultimately prose.
Rolling Combers, poetry by John M. Bennett, Potes and Poets Press,
Side Show: My Life with Geeks, Freaks & Vagabonds in the Carny Trade,
by Howard Bone. Sun Dog Press, Northville, Mi. Man, this is gonna be a
The Body and the Book: Writing from a Mennonite Life, by Julia Kasdorf,
The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
Divine Murder, novel by Ward Kelley, Ward Wrangler Publishing Co.,
Albert, Himself, a novel by Jeff W. Bens, Delphinium Books, Encino.
Have a Seat, Please, by Don Reid, Texas Review Press. This is a
book by a guy who saw 189 men die in the Texas electric chair.
The Selected Poems, by Antler. Softskull Press, NY. Antler not just
boyjerk cocksuck meatcum in the tree-hugging nightsky/Antler Ginsbergian
echo of Whitmanian brilliance. A very good book.
in Prose, ed. Mary Ann Caws, various translators, New Directions,
NY. A very dull book.
Nudes of God, galleys of poetry book by James Barfoot. NewSouth Books,
Montgomery, AL. A very questionable book with a Fantastic cover! The real
book might have a different cover, but the galleys has a mouth-watering
Desire for a Beginning Dread of One Single End, by Edmond Jabès,
trans. Rosemarie Waldrop, Granary Books, NY. This is a very attractive
artbook-type edition with intriguing images by Ed Epping (though it's
almost as if there is a clash between the futuristic-seeming graphic design
of the images and the old-school aphorisms on classic subjects Jabès
addresses); nevertheless, a slick-looking book printed on thick glossy
paper, which will fit in your pocket or under your hat, if that's what
you want. The translations are competent... that is, when she translates.
Sometimes she leaves words like crapauds and jardinages
in French and assumes the reader will understand (and it's not like this
is a bilingual edition). She also takes some pretty risky liberties, like
translating "Le rien est plus audacieux que le tout" as "the void
is more daring than the whole" [emphasis mine] when it's obvious
that Jabès is playing off the contrast between nothing and
everything. Seems to me that some French writers use "void" (vide)
as a concept, but Jabès does not. He's more of a meat and potatoes
kinda visionary. He doesn't call a dog a dachshund, but Rosemarie Waldrop
might. I'm pulled toward Kevin P.Q. Phelan's translation (he uses "the
All" for "le tout," above), located toward the top of your
Poesy dial. Yep, it's in this very issue! KPQP is a bit more cautious,
and a lot less willing to insist on interpretation and taste -- which
is a translating virtue. Waldrop, on the other hand, can get a little
headstrong, and not only that, there are some sloppy typos and low-level
mistakes in her version which don't help (i.e., for "C'est qu'il souffrait,
sans le savoir, d'une autre maladie," Waldrop uses "He suffered, unawares,
of a different illness" [sic]; whereas KPQP uses "He was suffering, without
realizing it, from another sickness"). This is all piddly stuff, though,
and as twentieth-century translation theory (soon to be renamed something
else) claims, the more translations there are referring back to an original
text (quality aside) the better.